Properties of 2D Shapes in KS1

Properties of 2D Shapes

Properties of 2D Shapes in KS1

In the early stages of their mathematical journey, KS1 students are introduced to the fascinating world of 2D shapes. Understanding the properties of these shapes lays a solid foundation for more advanced geometric concepts. In this article, we will delve into the properties of 2D shapes and explore their significance in the KS1 curriculum.

What are 2D Shapes?

Before we explore their properties, let’s define 2D shapes. These shapes lie flat on a plane and have only two dimensions – length and width. Common examples include circles, triangles, squares, rectangles, and more complex shapes like hexagons.

Sides and Vertices

Each 2D shape is characterized by the number of sides and vertices it possesses. A side is a straight line that connects two vertices, while a vertex is a point where two or more sides meet. KS1 students learn to count sides and vertices, developing their shape recognition skills.

Types of 2D Shapes

KS1 students are introduced to various types of 2D shapes. Some of the common ones include triangles, quadrilaterals, circles, and polygons. Triangles are three-sided polygons, while quadrilaterals have four sides. Circles are defined by their radius and diameter. Polygons are multi-sided shapes with different characteristics.

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Symmetry is an essential concept when studying 2D shapes. KS1 students learn about lines of symmetry, which divide shapes into two equal halves. Some shapes have multiple lines of symmetry, like squares, while others have none, like irregular polygons.


Understanding angles is crucial when exploring the properties of 2D shapes. KS1 students discover different types of angles, such as acute, obtuse, and right angles. They also learn to measure angles using a protractor and understand their significance in various shapes.

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Perimeter and Area

In KS1, students begin to understand the concepts of perimeter and area. Perimeter refers to the total length of the shape’s boundary, while area measures the space enclosed within the shape. They learn to calculate these measurements for simple 2D shapes like squares and rectangles.

The study of 2D shapes in KS1 is a fundamental aspect of early mathematics education. By exploring their properties, sides, vertices, symmetry, angles, perimeter, and area, students develop essential skills that pave the way for more complex geometric concepts in later stages. Understanding 2D shapes not only enhances their problem-solving abilities but also encourages creative thinking and spatial awareness. As students progress in their mathematical journey, they will build upon this knowledge to explore the intriguing world of 3D shapes and more advanced mathematical principles.

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Hendrik Morella
March 2024